عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching image-based arithmetic problems on students' active memory performance and their processing efficiency. This research is applied in nature, and quasi-experimental design, pretest- posttest- follow up with control group was used as the method of the study.After studying and educational designing, 40 students of an elementary school in Yasouj voluntarily participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to experimental and control group (20 students in each group), and students in experimental group were taught for 9 sessions (one session per week) using representation- based instruction method. Researcher-made test was used as the data collection instrument. Variance analysis test with repeated measures was utilized to analyze data. The results revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean of active memory and processing efficiency (p≤/05) between the control and experimental group; therefore, it can be concluded that teaching image-based arithmetic problems leads to an increase in students' active memory function and their processing efficiency. In addition, the results indicated that the improvement in students' active memory performance and their processing efficiency in answering arithmetic problems are consistent over time. Finally, the results of comparing different representations in active memory performance and processing efficiency showed that the effects of different images are not the same. Therefore, using visual representation in the verbal problems of arithmetic with the priority of helpful images, bare images, useless images, and finally essential representation improves students' active memory performance.