The Relationship of Self-efficacy andAchievement Goals with Metacognition in Female High School Students in Mamasani
Abstract The present study investigated the relationship between self-efficacy, achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance), with metacognition, and compared the students'' metacognition factors (knowledge of cognition and knowledge of regulation). The population of this study consisted of female high school students (1389-1390) in Mamasani. The sample of this study consisted of 230 first-grade female students who were selected randomly by multi-stage random sampling method. The instruments for collecting data consisted of self-efficacy subscale of MSLQ (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia &Mckeachie ,1993), three subscales (mastery-approach, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) of Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (Midgley, 2000), mastery-avoidance subscale of Achievement Goals Scale (Andrew, Elliott, Holly, Mc-Gregor, 2001) and Metacognition Awareness Inventory (Schraw& Dennison, 1994). The regression analysis also revealed that self-efficacy and achievement goals have important roles in predicting metacognition factors. Results of Canonical analysis showed that linearcombination of metacognition factors (declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, conditional knowledge, planning, monitoring, information management, debugging and evaluation) was predicted by a linear combination of motivational factors (self-efficacy, mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals). In addition, the repeated measures ANOVA showed that students have significant differences in terms of levels of knowledge of cognition (declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and conditional knowledge) and knowledge of regulation (planning, monitoring, information management, debugging and evaluation).